Innovation supporting flood resilience

Recent flash flooding across Spain highlights the vulnerability of communities to protect themselves from such events. Whilst many countries operate early warning systems, gaps still exist in capabilities supporting flood resilience and preparedness.

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The city of Orihuela in Alicante was flooded. Source: The Independent

ANYWHERE is a Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation funded programme aimed at empowering exposed responder institutions and citizens to enhance their anticipation and pro-active capacity of response to face extreme and high-impact weather and climate events.  The EU programme is in the final stages of implementing a pan-European multi-hazard platform providing a better identification of the expected weather-induced impacts and their location in time and space before they occur.

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The ANYWHERE consortium

As part of the ANYWHERE programme innovation call, in 2018 three new companies were incorporated as partners offering specialist innovation to contribute to the market uptake of the outcomes generated by the project.  In the case of flood alerting and forecasting, a novel approach to linking the ANYWHERE products with a community-based approach was successful in being awarded one of the grants and intergated into the programme.

RiverTrack is an innovative solution for community-based flood alerting using Internet of Things (IoT) technology to provide real-time, local river level information. The system developed by Gary Martin is being adopted by many at-risk communities in Scotland. Gary said, “providing objective, real-time river level information to communities gives them additional crucial time to react and improve local resilience.”

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Linking site specific river observations with ANYWHERE radar and nowcast precipitation.

As part of the research grant, linking meteorological forecasts to the river monitoring provided by RiverTrack is being trialled to provide community specific flood forecasts.  Commenting on the work Paul Smith from waternumbers said “we’ve been pleased to work within the project to demonstrate the ability of our data based forecasting techniques and FloodForT software to provide a scalable platform for delivering timely forecasts of future water levels to communities.”

Through partnership working on the programme, the RiverTrack solution is now supporting early warning for vulnerable campsites in Catalonia.  Within the ANYWHERE programme a tool called A4Campsite has been developed, a flood-oriented Early Warning System for increasing self-protection of camping sites located in flood prone areas.  During the past 6 months, testing of this service has been carried out on 13 Pilot camping sites located in the delta of the Tordera River Basin, an area where floods represent a significant natural hazard.

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RiverTrack sensor on the Rec Viver, Blanes

The final conference and workshop for ANYWHERE is taking place on 29th and 30th October in Brussels.  The event will include demonstrations of the various programme solutions and innovation.

 

In search of practical solutions and partnerships for Disaster Risk Reduction in Developing Nations

Michael Clark is a Resilience Consultant at RAB and recently contributed to the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) regional platform for Africa and the Arab states held in Tunis. He reports on the search for solutions to disaster risk reduction.

While the welcome was warm and hospitable from our Tunisian hosts, the conference was set against the backdrop of tragic events in the country in late September. Heavy rain and flash flooding had killed 5 people in the Cap Bon Peninsula, destroying homes, property and livelihoods in its midst. Sadly, these scenes were repeated shortly after the UNISDR platform, with further flash floods killing 5 people in Bizerte and Nabeul during mid-October.

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Search and Rescue team members try to pull a bus in the flood water caused by heavy rainfall in the Bu Salim district of Jendouba City of Tunisia. Source: Floodlist

The floods in Tunisia are a stark reminder of the potential catastrophic impact of natural hazards such as flooding, coupled with the onset of climate change. It is mitigating the impact of tragic events such as these that motivates our work to enhance flood resilience around the world.

It is no surprise that flooding is listed as the most significant natural hazard across both African and Arab nations. It causes billions of dollars in economic losses, claiming the lives of thousands of people across the regions every year.

Last year I reported from both Ghana and Nigeria on the work that is being done to reduce disaster risk and enhance flood resilience. The impressive new flood early warning system used by NADMO in Ghana and the investment in flood resilience across states Nigeria from NGOs, supported at the federal level by NEMA, both serve to highlight the positive steps that are being taken.

One of the great benefits to come out of the UNISDR platform was exploring the role of the private sector in supporting these efforts as partners. Taking part in a round table discussion with representatives from the disaster management community, NGOs and private organisations, there was acknowledgement of the great work the private sector does post disaster, in response and recovery. It was evident from our discussion that there is also an appetite for the private sector to support disaster risk reduction efforts alongside existing actors.

Of course, that is far easier said than done, particularly when the concept of disaster risk reduction can seem complex and somewhat vague. Perhaps the best way to explain DRR is through this equation – yes, algebra is useful in the real world! While there are other iterations, the version below illustrates the point in terminology we now and use regularly.

Equation

In the equation above, the hazard is fixed, there’s not a great deal we can to prevent natural hazards occurring altogether, most of the time. However, there are still things we can do if we want to make our disaster risk smaller. We can alter our level of vulnerability and our level of preparedness as these are not fixed. By reducing our vulnerability or by increasing our level of preparedness, we can reduce our overall level of disaster risk. This is the first step in helping us understand what DRR is – it’s about continually reducing our vulnerability and increasing our level of preparedness. As the private sector, we can take a significant role in that.

To take this a step further, the UNISDR frequently talk about ‘disaster risk reduction for resilience’ . Which is simply another way of saying that we become more resilient by continually reducing our vulnerability and improving our preparedness – but you all knew that already. When we put these terms into language we all use on a day to day basis, the whole concept seems far less alien and we start to see how the field opens up to a more diverse range of actors.

To reduce vulnerability, we consider planning policy, development regulation and land use – where we build, how we build and what we build with – all spheres of great interest to private enterprise. To increase our preparedness, we plan for emergencies, train our communities, up-skill professional responders to implement these plans and exercise to validate it’s all going to work properly when it’s supposed to. As a topical example, using our technical knowledge to improve capability in flood forecasting and developing early warning systems all serve to enhance our level of preparedness and therefore our resilience.

When we understand DRR in this way, it serves to further enforce the value of the platform, as it was a great opportunity to highlight the work that we do in flood forecasting and early warning, training and exercising. There is clearly a desire amongst DRR practitioners at national and regional level as well as among NGOs, to engage with the private sector and utilise the skills that exist. As is often the case for sustainable development initiatives, funding is a challenge. Not so much its lack of existence, but more it’s visibility and eligibility criteria.

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The Africa-Arab Platform on Disaster Risk Reduction themed “Towards Disaster Risk Informed and inclusive sustainable development” 09 to 13 October 2018, Tunis, Tunisia.

Success might look like the third sector and private enterprise partnering to deliver more sustainable projects, sharing knowledge, sharing intelligence and partnering to deliver more effective projects. The presence of private enterprise can enhance the supply of specialist technical support and the role of both international and local delivery NGOs goes a long way to ensuring sustainability. If we are willing to look to new and innovative partnerships, then the prospects for securing new means of funding become greater and the number of beneficiaries of DRR in the developing world grow ever wider.

 

Serious Gaming for Flood Resilience

Robyn Shaw, an MSc Sustainability and Water Security research student, reflects on work to develop a serious game to help improve community flood resilience.

I am currently at the University of Dundee and as part of my course I had the pleasure to embark in a research in practice placement supporting the development of practical solutions for flood resilience.  The aim of my placement was: To develop a concept of a multi-participatory game based on reality for flood response and community flood resilience in Scotland which was fun to play.

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Civil Agency, Society and Climate ADaptation to Weather Extremes (CASCADE-NET) workshop at the University of Dundee. Source: CASCADE-NET

Serious games are interactive and fun educational tools which allow players to learn from experience in a safe environment. The niche of the game I was focussing on was learning and understanding the different channels of communication during a flood. My placement involved desk-based research, setting up and attending meetings with key individuals, for example a gaming expert, running workshops and shaping the concept of the game into a prototype.

Two workshops were held, one with flood experts with representatives from SEPA, Scottish Flood Forum and a Local Authority, and another with university research students. The concept of the serious game was played, and constructive feedback was received in a discussion to assist the development. This was analysed and eight key areas arose: name, aim, audience, timing, players, graphics, education and ethics. Alterations were made and the serious game, now known as FORECAsT, became a prototype and was successfully ran at a CASCADE-NET Emergency Response seminar.

The FORECAsT game was run to support a CASCADE-NET seminar on Civil Society and Emergency Response: conflicting discourses of dependency and empowerment, with over 40 attendees from multiple disciplines including the Scottish Government, academics, local councils, and flood experts. This was an amazing opportunity for myself and the game as it promoted integration of serious gaming as an educational tool into wider society. The attendees were grouped into a number of roles all involved in receiving flood forecasting information. The players had to decide who and how to respond and communicate with other players using post-it notes, and news headlines and social media messages.

Overall, there was a very positive response and it stimulated a lot of discussion around the topic ‘reducing dependency and enhancing empowerment’ which was the main question the game supported in the seminar. The player’s feedback highlighted that they really began to understand the different channels of communication from the perspectives of each role during flood response. They were challenged, educated and had fun acting out a real life situation but in a safe environment. This opportunity has given the game FORECAsT a great prospect, ready for the next stages of development.

Throughout the course of my placement I was given several unique opportunities and a vast amount of valuable experience which I highly appreciated. I was fortunate to have worked collaboratively with those trying to develop the game FORECAsT and I believe it definitely has the potential to be established into a functional game in the future. Overall, it was an exciting new project to work on and I learnt the importance of support from other colleagues and the main factor- to enjoy your job!

 

Improving Community Flood Resilience in Areas Remaining at Risk

Dan Matthews is a Senior Resilience Consultant, with experience in flood incident management and planning.  Dan reports on FRM2017 and work on improving community flood resilience.

“Would you like to speak at the SNIFFER Flood Risk Management conference in Edinburgh?”

I’ve learnt to see some of these ‘development opportunities’ approaching, but on this occasion opted to grab it with both hands. I’m glad that I did! SNIFFER bring people and ideas together as ‘knowledge brokers for a resilient Scotland’ and their annual Flood Risk Management Conference in Edinburgh has promoted learning, sharing best practice and shaping next steps throughout the sector. With the 2017 event titled ‘Managing Flood Risk in the Context of Change’ it was a chance to share some of my recent work on improving community flood resilience.

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Temporary flood barriers protecting communities along the River Severn. Source: Panoramio

I’ve been working closely with a team at the Environment Agency to develop a national capability to provide support to communities throughout England using temporary flood barriers. Whilst this has involved significant financial investment in equipment, it also requires significant time investment to develop the plans, procedures and importantly the people to deliver the capability.

I have been fortunate to be involved in many elements of this work, from developing deployment plans for specific communities, through to embedding new ways of working with incident response staff. It was challenging to get the critical parts of this operational for the winter of 2016, but also amazing what can be achieved when people are motivated by new and innovative ideas.

In January 2017, this was called into action as over 8000 metres of temporary flood barriers and 25 high volume pumps were deployed in advance of significant flood risk on the East coast of England. One deployment stretched for over a mile, reducing the risk of flooding for residents at Ferriby on the River Humber in Yorkshire.

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Testing temporary defence deployment plans with the Environment Agency.

I found it really interesting to reflect upon this and share some of what I’ve learnt with those at the conference. The Cabinet Secretary for Environment, Climate Change and Land Reform’s keynote speech provided some great context. Climate change is expected to potentially double flood risk in some areas of Scotland before the end of the century. Surely there is a role for this kind of capability, perhaps on a local authority scale, in Scotland?

The 2007 Floods: ten years of thinking big and acting early

Russell Burton is an expert in flood risk and incident management, Managing Director of RAB Consultants and a former flood warning team leader in the Environment Agency.  Russell looks back at changes in flood resilience since the 2007 floods.

I read John Curtin’s blog Flood risk management 10 years on – a journey of high and low tech improvements with great interest this week and found the list of improvements and the progress made impressive, especially against a backdrop of economic uncertainty and austerity.

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Tewkesbury is situated in Gloucestershire and was one of the worst affected parts of the county when the floods hit in July 2007. Source: Panoramio

It also got me thinking back to my own experiences and how the changes are not only in the tech we use but also in the way we think and respond to floods. Like John, I have my own story of what I was doing on the day of the 2007 storm. In July 2007, RAB was one year old, so it was a time of optimism and hard work for me to get the company off the ground. On that day in July I had a meeting with Environment Agency Wales (remember them!) in Cardiff, to start planning a flood exercise of all things. I planned to drive from Lichfield to Cardiff via the M50 with RAB’s first ever employee as a passenger. To be fair the Met office issued severe weather warnings for the west midlands up to 2 or 3 days ahead of the storm but it would only be on the homeward journey for us and who was to say it would be that bad and in that location anyway? I blush at the thought of my gung-ho attitude but I think I reflect the mindset of the times, “Think maybe, act if we have to”.

So off we set and had a great meeting, but by the time we were heading home reports were already coming in of flooding and travel disruption. Nevertheless we made pretty good progress on the M50 till we were approaching the junction with the M5 at Stroud. By now the downpour was a monsoon, the motorway came to a standstill and gradually the road became a river as torrents of water flowed off the fields. The hard shoulder and lane one were impassable but after a two hour delay we were able to crawl past in the “fast lane”.

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Strensham Services on the M5, July 20th 2007. Source: flickr

To be fair I wasn’t the only one “thinking maybe and acting if we have to”, at some point I probably passed the lorry full of flood barriers bound for Upton upon Severn but stuck on the other carriageway of the flooded M5.

So what’s changed? Personally, I take Severe Weather Warnings very seriously now and adjust my travel arrangements to suit. But 2007 was also a watershed in mindset for flood risk managers in the UK. For the Environment Agency, it was the birth of the mantra “Think Big, Act Early”. This simple phrase has stood up to challenge (Think big, Act Appropriately was one watered down suggestion I recall) and I believe it’s helped drive the high and low tech improvements listed by John. It’s made us ask questions like, how big, how shall we act and when is early enough? The Flood Forecasting Centre  quantify the scale and timing of the impacts through the Flood Guidance Statement, which now gives flood managers up to 5 days notice to decide how and when to act early. The new extended flood outlook offers a 30 day window for flood risk managers to prepare and plan the response. The 2013-14 floods (amongst others!) highlighted that Thinking Big didn’t always result in Act Early. There was a need to plan what early actions could be done with this extra lead time for unprotected communities, and so came Temporary Defence Deployment Plans and Major Incident Plans to set out the strategic and tactical actions flood managers have at their disposal. Although these are just a couple of examples, the other improvements in John’s list are also driven by the need to “Think Big, Act Early”.

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July 2007 floods at-a-glance. Source: BBC

So in summary, the high and low tech improvements that have been made over the last 10 years are all fantastic but for me the biggest change is in our mindset, to “Think Big, Act Early”. To bring this into sharp contrast, this week the Met Office predicted that Britain is heading for “unprecedented” winter rainfall after their new super computer predicted records will be broken by up to 30 per cent. Time to “Think Big, Act early”.

Resilience through disaster risk reduction in Nigeria

In April, Michael Clark reported on work to improve disaster management in Ghana. This month he reports on a new project in disaster risk reduction in Nigeria.

Way back in January 2005, with the world still in shock following the devastating Indian Ocean earthquake & tsunami and with the horrors of Hurricane Katrina still 8 months away, the United Nations was setting out how we would go about making the world safer from natural disasters – it’s timing could not have been more significant.

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The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Picture credit: STR/AFP/Getty Images via CNN.com

The 2005 Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) was the first time a global plan had been developed to detail the work required from stakeholders across the public, private and charitable sectors to reduce disaster risk. Thanks to the HFA, governments, intergovernmental agencies, international and national NGOs, disaster experts and at-risk communities were starting to work together to coordinate their preparation for disasters.

The HFA was the first significant step taken towards placing an emphasis on mitigating and preparing for disasters; the essence of resilience. It moved away from the traditional disaster management methodology – simply focussed on dealing with the aftermath; response and recovery. The subsequent Sendai Framework built on this and placed an even greater emphasis on mitigation and preparation through disaster risk reduction. It is the Sendai Framework that will shape how we go about disaster management and building resilience up until 2030.

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The seven global targets of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction

In many facets, the Nigerian National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) is seen to be a regional spearhead in disaster management across West Africa. The scale and scope of the hazards experienced across Africa’s most populous nation are vast – from flooding to oil spills and infectious disease outbreaks to an Islamist insurgency, the demands placed upon NEMA are significant.

The ongoing Afri-Gate project, which is led by the Bournemouth University’s Disaster Management Centre (BUDMC) and supported by RAB Consultants aims to support the growth of disaster risk reduction and resilience across West Africa. Much like my work in Ghana, the initial phase of the project sought to identify where there are challenges for disaster management and disaster managers in Nigeria in their attempts to improve disaster risk reduction.

I spent 5 days in the federal capital of Abuja, working closely with NEMA’s senior team to understand the disaster management structure and the strategic direction of the agency. Despite being in its infancy, a dedicated department to advocate and coordinate disaster risk reduction efforts across the country has ensured that Nigeria is making huge strides in the right direction.

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Michael Clark is a resilience consultant who has worked across West Africa over the last 7 years. He is pictured at NEMA Headquarters in Abuja, Nigeria.

Despite the best efforts of NEMA, recent flooding events in Oyo State have highlighted the challenges faced by the agency in their promotion of disaster risk reduction. Dredging operations undertaken by the state government to reduce the risk of flooding are being negated by the persistence of communities building homes on water courses. This is one of the areas that the Afri-Gate project will continue to explore as we investigate how NEMA can better engage communities to highlight the importance of disaster risk reduction.

The Afri-Gate project continues to grow in its impact and significance across West Africa.

Building good practice to support engagement with flood risk communities

Paul Laidlaw, Community Resilience Manager with the Scottish Flood Forum, reports on efforts to support engagement with communities at risk of flooding.

The Scottish Flood Forum (SFF) recently launched a pilot Good Practice Framework (GPF) to support engagement with flood risk communities. The work is being developed in partnership with the National Centre For Resilience in Scotland (NCR) who were established in 2016 to ensure communities across Scotland are fully and adequately prepared for natural hazards such as flooding and landslides.

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Stonehaven (pictured) is a community where examples of good practice can be used to support others involved in engagement with flood risk communities. Source: Metro

The GPF is made up of lots of useful information to support organisations think about the different ways they can engage flood risk communities such as case studies, information notes, check lists, templates and more. The four case studies outline a range of successful methods to engage flood risk communities to take positive action and work in partnership. These case studies include examples of the SFF supporting partnership working with flood risk communities and concrete examples of communities working to increase their resilience to flooding in Stonehaven, Edzell, Aberfeldy and Menstrie.

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Launch of the new good practice framework, a partnership between the Scottish Flood Forum and the National Centre for Resilience.

Our work at the Scottish Flood Forum is committed to supporting engagement with flood risk communities and the GPF offers a range of soft guidance to support local authority staff and others with an interest in high quality engagement. The GPF offers information on starting community flood resilience groups, setting up a flood warden scheme, partnership working, developing community flood plans and a set of draft principles that can help to provide a strong foundation to develop engagement with flood risk communities.

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Paul Laidlaw (left) pictured with others involved in engagement with the community of Menstrie in Clackmannanshire.

The framework can be viewed at Resilience Direct under the NCR page and by accessing working groups. The SFF would love to hear feedback from those involved in community engagement on its usefulness and any suggestions to improve the GPF. For more information contact paul.laidlaw@scottishfloodforum.org