Serious Gaming for Flood Resilience

Robyn Shaw, an MSc Sustainability and Water Security research student, reflects on work to develop a serious game to help improve community flood resilience.

I am currently at the University of Dundee and as part of my course I had the pleasure to embark in a research in practice placement supporting the development of practical solutions for flood resilience.  The aim of my placement was: To develop a concept of a multi-participatory game based on reality for flood response and community flood resilience in Scotland which was fun to play.

Cascde event (picture by Cascade_net)

Civil Agency, Society and Climate ADaptation to Weather Extremes (CASCADE-NET) workshop at the University of Dundee. Source: CASCADE-NET

Serious games are interactive and fun educational tools which allow players to learn from experience in a safe environment. The niche of the game I was focussing on was learning and understanding the different channels of communication during a flood. My placement involved desk-based research, setting up and attending meetings with key individuals, for example a gaming expert, running workshops and shaping the concept of the game into a prototype.

Two workshops were held, one with flood experts with representatives from SEPA, Scottish Flood Forum and a Local Authority, and another with university research students. The concept of the serious game was played, and constructive feedback was received in a discussion to assist the development. This was analysed and eight key areas arose: name, aim, audience, timing, players, graphics, education and ethics. Alterations were made and the serious game, now known as FORECAsT, became a prototype and was successfully ran at a CASCADE-NET Emergency Response seminar.

The FORECAsT game was run to support a CASCADE-NET seminar on Civil Society and Emergency Response: conflicting discourses of dependency and empowerment, with over 40 attendees from multiple disciplines including the Scottish Government, academics, local councils, and flood experts. This was an amazing opportunity for myself and the game as it promoted integration of serious gaming as an educational tool into wider society. The attendees were grouped into a number of roles all involved in receiving flood forecasting information. The players had to decide who and how to respond and communicate with other players using post-it notes, and news headlines and social media messages.

Overall, there was a very positive response and it stimulated a lot of discussion around the topic ‘reducing dependency and enhancing empowerment’ which was the main question the game supported in the seminar. The player’s feedback highlighted that they really began to understand the different channels of communication from the perspectives of each role during flood response. They were challenged, educated and had fun acting out a real life situation but in a safe environment. This opportunity has given the game FORECAsT a great prospect, ready for the next stages of development.

Throughout the course of my placement I was given several unique opportunities and a vast amount of valuable experience which I highly appreciated. I was fortunate to have worked collaboratively with those trying to develop the game FORECAsT and I believe it definitely has the potential to be established into a functional game in the future. Overall, it was an exciting new project to work on and I learnt the importance of support from other colleagues and the main factor- to enjoy your job!

 

Nepal Floods 2017: ‘We had the forecasts but not the system to link them with our preparedness and response’

Madhab Uprety, Disaster Risk Reduction consultant, and Sumit Dugar, Research Associate at Practical Action Consulting South Asia, reflect on efforts to improve disaster preparedness in Nepal.

Southern flood plains of Nepal have always experienced a varied degree of flooding during the monsoon.  Whilst humanitarian responders and district level agencies have always relied on a general level of preparedness based on average levels of risks leading to periodic preparedness interventions across these flood prone districts.

Rautahat-flood-1

Portion of the Lal Bakaiya dam that was swept away by a flood in Rautahat during August 2017. Source: The Himalayan Times.

So far most of the major river basins are equipped with early warning systems and there are existing protocols and mechanisms to communicate early warnings and plan for emergencies. Yet we seemed hardly prepared for the recent Terai floods that claimed hundreds of lives and rendered tens of thousands of people homeless.

The scale and extent of flooding was huge as incessant rainfall for two days and across the Churiya range unleashed floods across entire southern belt inundating 26 Terai districts.

Nepal-SDugar1

Picture credit: Discussion between community members during flood response exercise, by Sumit Dugar.

But the rainfall event was not off the radar of prediction and was indeed forecast several days in advance. The events were captured 10 and 3 days in advance by the global flood and weather forecast models. Though the flood alerts were issued by the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM) 24-hours in advance, disaster managers hardly move beyond their customary response approaches of rescue and relief.

Existing early warning systems in major river basins were instrumental in saving assets, lives and properties, but warnings and actions merely based on the real-time situation of rivers and rainfall were not adequate enough to cater every contingency, particularly in case of flash floods from small monsoon (intermittent) streams.

There is dire need of paradigm shift towards forecast-based emergency preparedness. Unfortunately, there is not any mechanism that links scientific forecasts within the existing humanitarian landscape.  And also it is largely unclear among the humanitarian actors and government stakeholders about what levels of forecast probabilities and magnitude are worthy to react.

Globally there has been a recent increased shift towards anticipatory preparedness and early actions based upon weather forecasts under the remit of Forecast-based Financing (FbF), a niche concept which envisions humanitarian agencies and government stakeholders making use of credible scientific information to anticipate possible impacts and mobilise resources automatically before a hazard event.

Nepal-SDugar2

Picture credit: Community member using hand siren during flood response exercise, by Sumit Dugar.

Practical Action together with support from the World Food Program have been advocating this approach in Nepal and the idea has already been put-forth across national Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) platforms for discussion. FbF is currently being piloted in six flood prone districts of West Nepal and there is an intention to upscale these initiatives across entire southern flood plains of Nepal. Forecast thresholds and triggers have been identified and Standard Operating Procedures (SoPs) that includes science informed anticipatory actions have been developed and integrated in the local disaster preparedness plans.

However, regular communication of the forecasts and their effective interpretation among the end users constrains FbF implementation. The aftermath of recent floods in August 2017 have certainly increased relevance of FbF in disaster preparedness and response, and the pressing question now is whether the recent floods will act as a wake-up call and we start making forecasts part of our readiness or simply plan response and recovery in a normative business as usual manner.

Improving Community Flood Resilience in Areas Remaining at Risk

Dan Matthews is a Senior Resilience Consultant, with experience in flood incident management and planning.  Dan reports on FRM2017 and work on improving community flood resilience.

“Would you like to speak at the SNIFFER Flood Risk Management conference in Edinburgh?”

I’ve learnt to see some of these ‘development opportunities’ approaching, but on this occasion opted to grab it with both hands. I’m glad that I did! SNIFFER bring people and ideas together as ‘knowledge brokers for a resilient Scotland’ and their annual Flood Risk Management Conference in Edinburgh has promoted learning, sharing best practice and shaping next steps throughout the sector. With the 2017 event titled ‘Managing Flood Risk in the Context of Change’ it was a chance to share some of my recent work on improving community flood resilience.

Brian Mills

Temporary flood barriers protecting communities along the River Severn. Source: Panoramio

I’ve been working closely with a team at the Environment Agency to develop a national capability to provide support to communities throughout England using temporary flood barriers. Whilst this has involved significant financial investment in equipment, it also requires significant time investment to develop the plans, procedures and importantly the people to deliver the capability.

I have been fortunate to be involved in many elements of this work, from developing deployment plans for specific communities, through to embedding new ways of working with incident response staff. It was challenging to get the critical parts of this operational for the winter of 2016, but also amazing what can be achieved when people are motivated by new and innovative ideas.

In January 2017, this was called into action as over 8000 metres of temporary flood barriers and 25 high volume pumps were deployed in advance of significant flood risk on the East coast of England. One deployment stretched for over a mile, reducing the risk of flooding for residents at Ferriby on the River Humber in Yorkshire.

Russ 2007

Testing temporary defence deployment plans with the Environment Agency.

I found it really interesting to reflect upon this and share some of what I’ve learnt with those at the conference. The Cabinet Secretary for Environment, Climate Change and Land Reform’s keynote speech provided some great context. Climate change is expected to potentially double flood risk in some areas of Scotland before the end of the century. Surely there is a role for this kind of capability, perhaps on a local authority scale, in Scotland?

Building good practice to support engagement with flood risk communities

Paul Laidlaw, Community Resilience Manager with the Scottish Flood Forum, reports on efforts to support engagement with communities at risk of flooding.

The Scottish Flood Forum (SFF) recently launched a pilot Good Practice Framework (GPF) to support engagement with flood risk communities. The work is being developed in partnership with the National Centre For Resilience in Scotland (NCR) who were established in 2016 to ensure communities across Scotland are fully and adequately prepared for natural hazards such as flooding and landslides.

Stonehaven

Stonehaven (pictured) is a community where examples of good practice can be used to support others involved in engagement with flood risk communities. Source: Metro

The GPF is made up of lots of useful information to support organisations think about the different ways they can engage flood risk communities such as case studies, information notes, check lists, templates and more. The four case studies outline a range of successful methods to engage flood risk communities to take positive action and work in partnership. These case studies include examples of the SFF supporting partnership working with flood risk communities and concrete examples of communities working to increase their resilience to flooding in Stonehaven, Edzell, Aberfeldy and Menstrie.

IMG_0896

Launch of the new good practice framework, a partnership between the Scottish Flood Forum and the National Centre for Resilience.

Our work at the Scottish Flood Forum is committed to supporting engagement with flood risk communities and the GPF offers a range of soft guidance to support local authority staff and others with an interest in high quality engagement. The GPF offers information on starting community flood resilience groups, setting up a flood warden scheme, partnership working, developing community flood plans and a set of draft principles that can help to provide a strong foundation to develop engagement with flood risk communities.

Photo 08-03-2017, 13 54 46

Paul Laidlaw (left) pictured with others involved in engagement with the community of Menstrie in Clackmannanshire.

The framework can be viewed at Resilience Direct under the NCR page and by accessing working groups. The SFF would love to hear feedback from those involved in community engagement on its usefulness and any suggestions to improve the GPF. For more information contact paul.laidlaw@scottishfloodforum.org

How can we learn to live with floods?

Fiona Cuthill, assistant flood risk management consultant and editor of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society Young Geographer magazine, reports on a recent conference which looked into learning to live with floods in Scotland.

In March 2017, the Royal Society of Edinburgh  hosted an event which brought together flood resilience experts to discuss how we can learn to live with floods and the associated challenges for science and management. Speakers from academic institutions, government bodies and private consultancies discussed their research about how resilience to flooding can be achieved.

1206ukstorm4

Picture credit: Northern England, Scotland battered by floods tied to Storm Desmond, Newsweek

One of the themes explored at the conference was the use of engineering approaches to create flood resilient communities. Professor David Balmforth (MWH Global) explored the benefits of creating blue-green cities as a way to manage surface water runoff and allow urban areas to become more resilient by preventing damaging flows occurring. Dr Mark Wilkinson (James Hutton Institute) advocated the use of Natural Flood Management techniques in catchments to reduce flood risk, while highlighting their non-disruptive nature to current land use practices, as exemplified in the case of Balruddery Farm, Dundee.

Community engagement was another key theme presented at the conference with Michael Cranston (RAB Consultants/University of Dundee) discussing research undertaken into the effectiveness of SEPA flood warnings. Following a series of workshops and questionnaires with community groups, it was found that most customers are happy with the service and do take action when a warning is issued. However, customers would like more information provided in the warnings to help improve their preparedness and resiliency to flood events.

RSE conference

Picture credit: Twitter @iskraunam

Professor Ioan Fazey (University of Dundee) discussed his community engagement work in the Solomon Islands, and explained the necessity to tackle issues that weaken social cohesion to allow communities to build resilience. He also indicated the growing need for practitioners to enhance their facilitation skills to work through tensions within community groups to help build a greater resilience capacity, referencing the climate resilient communities work in the Scottish Borders.

Finally, Professor Edmund Penning-Rowsell (Universities of Oxford and Middlesex) discussed the Flood-Re insurance scheme which helps people living in high flood risk areas to afford premiums. However, Penning-Rowsell argued that subsidised premiums mean those living in high flood risk areas may be less inclined to pay for measures that will prevent their homes or businesses being flooded in the future. As a result, other ways of increasing the number of insured households will have to be tried.

Overall, the conference highlighted the need for continued improvement to our understanding of flooding and the best methodologies to build flood resilience. With flooding listed as the top environmental risk to the UK over the next century, this conference was a timely reminder that we need to continually update our knowledge and understanding of flooding to enhance the resilience of flood-prone and flood-affected communities.

The full report from the conference can be found here.